Uday Hattem al-Ghanimi represents a growing population of Iraqis who have sought political asylum and resettled in the United States after the Bush administration invaded Iraq in 2003. However, as the New York Times reported on Thursday, like many accomplished immigrants from other countries, Uday and his family have not been met with the welcome and opportunity for which they had hoped or were led to expect. With the wounds of war still tender, Iraqis are struggling to support themselves and their families as they face alienation in the job market and ostracism from society.
A social psychological perspective of the Iraqi experience in the United States elucidates the hardships that Iraqis are facing. Williams (1997, 2007) emphasized the profound negative effects of ostracism on individuals. Five minutes of ostracism due to exclusion from a ball-tossing game resulted in decreased self-esteem and feelings of helplessness, among other negative outcomes. Such negative outcomes are exacerbated with long-term ostracism. Williams notes that the effects of ostracism are initially felt much like physical pain, possibly reflecting overlapping neural circuitry. It seems Iraqis may have traded potential pain due to warfare for certain pain due to ostracism.
The New York Times: Iraqi Immigrants Face Lonely Struggle in U.S.
Williams, K. D. (2007). Ostracism: The kiss of social death.
Preventative care and aggressive follow-up treatment may not be the only things one needs to combat maladies like heart disease and cancer. Optimism could also be critical for recovery and general well-being. This week the BBC highlighted a study in which optimistic women had lower risks of suffering from heart disease and death over an eight year period (Tindle & Steinbaum, 2009). While this study links optimism and longevity, positive outlook is also associated with better health (Kamen & Seligman, 1987), greater achievement (Seligman, Nolen-Hoeksema, Thornton, and Thornton, 1990), persistence in achieving high-priority goals (Geers, Wellman, & Lassiter, 2009), lower levels of stress (Crosno, Rinaldo, Black, & Kelley (2009), and better emotional health (Matthews & Cook, 2008). What is it about optimism that provides such a wide variety of positive health and psychological outcomes? It could be that optimists are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and take better care of themselves. However, the research above suggests that above and beyond lifestyle differences the distinct outcomes associated with optimism could be attributed to optimists ability to recover from adversity better, view negative events as isolated and specific, as well as anticipate and respond proactively to stressors.
BBC: Optimistic women ‘live longer’
Optimism and Breast Cancer
It has long been assumed that positive affirmations are the key to happiness. In fact, there are countless books, websites, and resources dedicated to encouraging people to engage in positive thinking by repeating favorable statements about the self. Oprah Winfrey, one of the most iconic social figures in the United States, often encourages her viewers to engage in self-affirmation. However, recent work has found that these practices may actually undermine self-esteem for certain people.
Joanne Wood and colleagues found that when compared to high self-esteem individuals, people with low self-esteem who repeated positive affirmations (e.g., “I am a lovable person”) actually experienced a worse mood and expressed feeling less lovable. Moreover, when low self-esteem individuals were asked to focus on the ways in which positive affirmations were true of them (positive focus), they actually experienced worse mood, lower state self-esteem, and lower happiness than individuals who were instructed to think about how the affirmation may or may not be true of them (neutral focus).
These findings indicate that while positive thinking may be somewhat effective for people high in self-esteem, it is likely to be detrimental for low self-esteem individuals, the group these affirmations are supposed to help. One can hope that with further research, the next wave of self-help products will be beneficial for the ones who need it most.
The Oprah Winfrey Show: The Secret and Positive Affirmation
Wood, J. V., Perunovic, W. Q., & Lee, J. W. (2009). Positive Self-Statements: Power for Some, Peril for Others.